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The Internet has become an integral part of the modern world. The World Wide Web is home to millions of websites: informational, educational, informative, entertaining, gaming, commercial and many others. The vast majority of them have been created using technologies such as HTML and CSS. In today's BizUpLab blog, we will briefly discuss the history of HTML and CSS, as well as their functional use.

HTML and CSS are an inseparable pair

HTML is the basis of every website
HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. It is the code used to structure and display a web page and its content. The first official HTML standard was introduced in 1995. Before that, there were unofficial versions.

The first HTML specification, published in 1991, was based on 18 tags. In 1994, the newly formed W3C consortium began work on a standard specification for the language. The HTML 2.0 specification was released in September.

In March 1995, the HTML 3.0 specification was released, which supported the ability to add tables, frame images with text, and make notes. However, the emergence of new features was hampered by the backwardness of browsers, which could not make immediate changes to the code of their engines. Novelties had to be postponed until January 1997, when the specification of HTML 3.2 was released.

In December 1997, the HTML 4.0 specification was released. The new version included support for frames, scripts, improved work with tables and forms. In December 1999, HTML 4.01 was released, which was used by web developers until October 2014, when the HTML 5 specification was officially released. The new version improved support for multimedia and introduced 28 structural elements, making the code easier to understand for both developers and search engines.

HTML uses special tags to mark up pages. They are used to place the elements of a web page in a particular order. HTML is not a programming language, it is a markup language. It is used to tell your browser how to display the web pages you visit. HTML code can be complex or simple, depending on what the web designer wants. It consists of a number of elements that are used to make content appear or behave in a particular way.
CSS is HTML's companion
CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets. It is a formal language for describing the appearance of a document written using a markup language. CSS is not actually a programming language. Nor is it a markup language. CSS is a stylesheet language.

The main purpose of developing CSS was to separate the description of the logical structure of a web page (which is done using HTML or other markup languages) from the description of the appearance of that web page. Over time, web pages have become larger and more complex. When both markup and styles were written in a single HTML document, it was very large. There were so many pieces of code that it was difficult to make changes. CSS made it possible to separate the styling of a website from its structure.

In 1996, the CSS1 standard was released, allowing font parameters, colour, text attributes, alignment and indentation to be changed. In 1998, CSS2 was released, adding the ability to use block layout, sound tables, generated content, pointers and page carriers. The CSS3 version significantly increased the capabilities of styles: it became possible to create animated elements without JavaScript, support for anti-aliasing, shadows, gradients, etc. became available.
CSS is used to define styles (rules) for document layout - including design, layout, and layout variations for different devices and screen sizes.

This type of formatting has several advantages:
- Tags are not duplicated;
- The document is easier to maintain;
- The appearance of the entire site can be changed centrally, rather than having to change the formatting of each page.

CSS allows web page authors to specify the colour, font, positioning of individual blocks and other aspects of the presentation of the appearance of these web pages. It is also possible to create animations in CSS. The language is constantly evolving. Whereas in the past it was only possible to embed certain elements into a web page using JavaScript, it is now possible to do the same using CSS. It allows you to present the same document in different styles or output methods, such as screen presentation, print presentation, voice reading (by a special voice browser or screen reader), or output by Braille devices.
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