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JavaScript is a high-level, interpreted programming language used primarily to add interactivity and rich content to web pages. JavaScript was originally created to "bring web pages to life". While HTML defines the structure and layout of a web page and CSS gives it style, JavaScript makes it interactive by providing dynamic content and user interaction.

JavaScript: websites would be boring without it

When and why JavaScript was created
The language first appeared in 1995 as part of the Netscape Navigator browser. Netscape originally wanted to use the Java language, but then developed its own language, which was called LiveScript and then renamed JavaScript. It is likely that the company deliberately chose the name JavaScript to take advantage of the popularity of the Java language. Apparently, it was decided that it would be useful to position JavaScript as Java's "little brother".

The main idea behind the creation of the JavaScript language was to make web pages dynamic. JavaScript in the browser can do everything related to manipulating a web page, interacting with the user and the web server: adding or removing elements, checking that forms are filled in correctly, loading data from the server side, and so on. It can colour buttons, perform animations, load effects, all without reloading the page. JavaScript is used as the front-end language on the vast majority of websites.

Programs written in this language are called scripts. They can be embedded in HTML and run automatically when a web page loads. Scripts are distributed and executed as plain text. They don't need any special preparation or compilation to run. Today, JavaScript can be run not only in a browser, but also on a server or other device that has a special program called a JavaScript "engine".
What else JavaScript can do
As mentioned above, JavaScript was originally designed for browsers. It only ran on the client side (browsers) and was highly specialised. Over time, JavaScript has evolved considerably. In 2009, Node.js was released - a server-side platform for working with JavaScript. It is used by well-known companies: NASA, Netflix, PayPal, Twitter, LinkedIn, Uber, eBay and many more. With Node.js, you can build the server side of your website without using PHP or PERL, which have traditionally been used for this purpose.

In addition to web development, Node.js is used to develop the Internet of Things (IoT), create smart homes and program microcontrollers. JavaScript can be used to create mobile and desktop applications, as well as computer games.

JavaScript's versatility makes it in high demand. It is a multifunctional language that is used in a wide range of IT industries:
- Web front-end
- Web backend
- Mobile applications
- Game development
- Machine learning
- Databases
- DevOps
- Microcontrollers

JavaScript is a versatile language that can be used to create a web interface that attracts users to a web resource, as well as to develop applications and software. JavaScript can be used to create online chat rooms, bots, robots, mobile applications, games, etc. JavaScript is one of the most popular programming languages. It started to gain popularity in the early 2000s and is still one of the most advanced languages. The web industry continues to evolve rapidly, so JavaScript is here to stay.
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